Home / Longhorn Beetles (Cerambycidae) / Citrus Long-horned Beetle (Anoplophora chinensis)

Citrus Long-horned Beetle (Anoplophora chinensis)

Citrus long-horned beetle, a part of the long-horned beetle (Cerambycidae) family, is indigenous to different parts of Korea, Japan, and China. The beetle has also reached parts of America and the United Kingdom as an invasive species. It mostly infests in citrus trees, resulting in its name.

Citrus Long-horned Beetle

Scientific Classification

  • Family: Cerambycidae
  • Genus: Anoplophora
  • Scientific name: Anoplophora chinensis

Physical Description and Identification

Adult

Size: 21 – 37 mm (1 – 1.5 inches)

Color: It has shiny black elytra covered with about twelve black round spots. Each of the eleven segments has markings of light blue or white bands at the base.

Other Characteristic Features: They have a large, stout appearance with sexual dimorphism visible in their physical features. In the males, the abdominal tip is not visible since it remains entirely covered by the elytra. In contrast, in females, it is partially seen.

The antennae of the male citrus long-horned beetle species are double their body’s length. In females, it is just a little longer in comparison to their bodies.

Anoplophora chinensis

Larva

The larva is 5mm (0.22 inches) long when it just hatches, eventually growing up to 52 mm (2 inches). It has a creamy-white body with yellowish patterns on its prothorax, alongside a dark head. As the larva hatches from the eggs, it forms a tunnel by chewing into the tree, which eventually becomes a pupation site.

Citrus Long-horned Beetle Larva

Pupa

The pupa is 27 – 38 mm (1 – 1.5 inches), and the elytra cover their membranous hind wings. The pupal stage goes for 4 – 6 weeks, and one could mostly spot the pupae beneath the bark.

Citrus Long-horned Beetle Pupa

Egg

They are initially creamy, later turning yellowish-brown just before hatching. Having a length and width of 5 mm (0.22 inches) and 1.7 mm (0.07 inches), they are elongated with a smooth surface tapering towards both ends.

Quick Facts

Other NamesCitrus-root cerambycid, Rough-shouldered long-horned beetle
Adult Lifespan3 – 4 weeks
Duration of Larval Stage1- 2 years (can be a little longer in the United Kingdom and go up to 3 years because of the pleasant climatic conditions)
DistributionNative: Korea, Japan, China
Invasive: Different parts of North America, and also the United Kingdom
HabitatUrban landscape, forests, orchards, as well as wildlife and endangered salmon habitat, mostly in the leaves, trunks, roots, and twigs of their host plants  
Common PredatorsKnown to have no natural enemies
Seasons active fromMay – July
Host PlantsApple, hibiscus, Australian pine, willow, sycamore, pigeon pea, mulberry, litchi, oak, Japanese red cedar, Chinaberry, ficus, pecan
Diet  of larvae and adultsLarvae: Inner barks of host plants
Adults: Leaves and barks of host trees
Citrus long-horned Beetle Picture

Identifying the Damage Caused by Them

As the larva feeds on the trunk and roots, it weakens the tree making them more susceptible to disease. The damage caused by the citrus long-horned adult beetles is much more than the larvae since they directly attack the foliage and even the young barks.

Did You Know

  • Its discovery dates back to April 1999, when a single species was spotted at a nursery in Georgia’s Athens on a few bonsai trees from China.  Larger numbers of them was later seen in Washington’s Tukwila in a bonsai tree shipment from Korea.
  • Sightings were even found in east England’s Essex county.

Image Source: forestresearch.gov.uk, images.candideapp.com, bugwoodcloud.org, mpi.govt.nz, gozo.news

Citrus long-horned beetle, a part of the long-horned beetle (Cerambycidae) family, is indigenous to different parts of Korea, Japan, and China. The beetle has also reached parts of America and the United Kingdom as an invasive species. It mostly infests in citrus trees, resulting in its name.

Citrus Long-horned Beetle

Physical Description and Identification

Adult

Size: 21 – 37 mm (1 – 1.5 inches)

Color: It has shiny black elytra covered with about twelve black round spots. Each of the eleven segments has markings of light blue or white bands at the base.

Other Characteristic Features: They have a large, stout appearance with sexual dimorphism visible in their physical features. In the males, the abdominal tip is not visible since it remains entirely covered by the elytra. In contrast, in females, it is partially seen.

The antennae of the male citrus long-horned beetle species are double their body’s length. In females, it is just a little longer in comparison to their bodies.

Anoplophora chinensis

Larva

The larva is 5mm (0.22 inches) long when it just hatches, eventually growing up to 52 mm (2 inches). It has a creamy-white body with yellowish patterns on its prothorax, alongside a dark head. As the larva hatches from the eggs, it forms a tunnel by chewing into the tree, which eventually becomes a pupation site.

Citrus Long-horned Beetle Larva

Pupa

The pupa is 27 – 38 mm (1 – 1.5 inches), and the elytra cover their membranous hind wings. The pupal stage goes for 4 – 6 weeks, and one could mostly spot the pupae beneath the bark.

Citrus Long-horned Beetle Pupa

Egg

They are initially creamy, later turning yellowish-brown just before hatching. Having a length and width of 5 mm (0.22 inches) and 1.7 mm (0.07 inches), they are elongated with a smooth surface tapering towards both ends.

Quick Facts

Other NamesCitrus-root cerambycid, Rough-shouldered long-horned beetle
Adult Lifespan3 – 4 weeks
Duration of Larval Stage1- 2 years (can be a little longer in the United Kingdom and go up to 3 years because of the pleasant climatic conditions)
DistributionNative: Korea, Japan, China
Invasive: Different parts of North America, and also the United Kingdom
HabitatUrban landscape, forests, orchards, as well as wildlife and endangered salmon habitat, mostly in the leaves, trunks, roots, and twigs of their host plants  
Common PredatorsKnown to have no natural enemies
Seasons active fromMay – July
Host PlantsApple, hibiscus, Australian pine, willow, sycamore, pigeon pea, mulberry, litchi, oak, Japanese red cedar, Chinaberry, ficus, pecan
Diet  of larvae and adultsLarvae: Inner barks of host plants
Adults: Leaves and barks of host trees
Citrus long-horned Beetle Picture

Identifying the Damage Caused by Them

As the larva feeds on the trunk and roots, it weakens the tree making them more susceptible to disease. The damage caused by the citrus long-horned adult beetles is much more than the larvae since they directly attack the foliage and even the young barks.

Did You Know

  • Its discovery dates back to April 1999, when a single species was spotted at a nursery in Georgia’s Athens on a few bonsai trees from China.  Larger numbers of them was later seen in Washington’s Tukwila in a bonsai tree shipment from Korea.
  • Sightings were even found in east England’s Essex county.

Image Source: forestresearch.gov.uk, images.candideapp.com, bugwoodcloud.org, mpi.govt.nz, gozo.news

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